Introduction of Changde
According to scientific research, there were human beings inhabiting here some 8,000 years ago. It lay in the area of Jinzhou, one of the nine regions at the time of the Xia, Shang and Zhou Dynasties. It was the central area of Chu and Qian in the Warring States Period, while in the Qin Dynasty it belonged to the central county of Qian. It was called Wuling County in the Han Dynasty and named Langzhou in the Sui Dynasty, and Dingcheng in the Song Dynasty. In the 7th year of the Song Dynasty under Emperor Huizong (1117 AD), Changde County was established, and in 1165 AD (the first year of Song Emperor Xiaozong), it was upgraded to be Changde Prefecture. The name of Changde has been used ever since. It was named Changde City by the State Council in June 1986.
Located in the northwest of Hunan Province, Changde stretches from 110° to 113° east of longitude and from 28° to 31° north of latitude, covering a total area of 18,200 square kilometers. It is adjacent to the vast Dongting Lake on the east, lies within easy access to Yiyang City to the south, is connected to the Wuling and Xuefeng Mountains to the west, and borders Jinsha and Yichang to the north. Due to its advantageous geographical location, the city was historically called “the throat of Guizhou and Sichuan and the gateway of Yunnan and Guizhou”. The Yuan River and Li River, two of the longest rivers in Hunan Province, run through almost all the counties and districts of Changde. It is also called “Willow City” the Liuye(willow leaf) Lake in it.
Changde enjoysa local 3-dimensional transportation system has taken shape incorporating aviation, railway, highway/expressway and waterway.
The 4C level airport where Boeing 737 and 757, Douglas 80 and 82 planes can land and take off has opened seven flight routes to Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, Kuming, Shenzhen, Liuzhou, Tianjing, Chongqing and Hangzhou.
Two major railways, the Zhicheng-Linzhou Railway and the Shimen-Changsha Railway, pass through Changde City connecting to the Jiaozuo-Zhicheng Railway and the Beijing-Guangzhou Railway.
Highway and Expressway
National Highways G207 and G319 connect all major regions of Changde and lead to 8 other provincial routes. By the end of 2015, Changde will boast a expressway net consisting of Changde-Changsha Expressway, Changde-Jishou Expressway, Changde-Zhangjiajie Expressway, Changde-Yueyang Expressway, Changde-Lixian Expressway, Changde- Anhua Expressway, Anxiang- Cili Expressway Yichang- Zhangjiajie Expressway.
Yuan River and Li River pass through Changde and Changde therefore enjoy an advantage in waterway. Changde boasts Changde Port, the second largest port of Hunan Province, which is designed to have an annual capacity of 1.2 million ton of bulk cargo and an annual capacity of 20 thousand containers. It possesses 10 cranes of different sizes with the maximum crane capacity of 40 ton. In Changde, there are 36 docks along the Yuan and Li Rivers with a total capacity of 10 million tons per year. Both passenger and freight ships can now sail directly to the Dongting Lake and the Yangtze River from Changede.
According to a population sampling survey, by the end of 2010, Changde had a total population of 5717218, among which 2882090(50.41%) are male and 2835128(49.59 %) are female, 358520 graduated from college or university, 981493 from senior high school, 2250492 from junior high school and 1605265 from primary school. The following table is about the population distribution of Changde.
Population Distribution of Changde
Changde enjoys a subtropical climate. It is intensely hot in summer and severe cold in winter and the annual average temperature is about 17.0℃. Annually, the city has 1335.3 hours of sunshine and an average rainfall of 1398.3 millimeters, most of which came during the March-July rainy season.
There are under Changde’s jurisdiction 5 districts(Wuling District, Dingcheng District, Taohuayuan Administrative District, Xidongting Administrative District, Xihu Administrative District) , 1 development zone(Changde Economy and Technology Development Zone), 1 tourism resort(Liuye Lake Tourism Resort) and 6 counties(Anxiang County, Lixian County, Jinshi County, Shimen County, Linli County and Hanshou County)
Wuling District is located in the lower reaches of the Yuan River and is the central area of Changde City. It has a total area of 297.40 square kilometers and a population of 460,000.
Dingcheng District has a total area of 2226 square kilometers and a population of 766,000.
Changde Economy and Technology Development Zone
Changde Economy and Technology Development Zone is the industrial center of Changde. It has a total area of 50 square kilometers and a population of 100,000. There are in it more than 300 enterprises, among which 100 enterprises are scale enterprises.
Taohuayuan Administrative District
Taohuayuan Administrative District is located in the lower reach of the Yuan River and in the southwestern part of Taoyuan County. It has a total area of 142.48 square kilometers and a population of 38.7 thousand.
Xidongting Administrative District
Xidongting Administrative District, named for its location on the west bank of the Dongting Lake, is the modern agricultural demonstration zone. It has a total area of 110 square kilometers and a population of 6.8 thousand.
Xihu Administrative District
Xihu Administrative District lies on the west side of the Dongting Lake and between the Yuan River and the Li River. It has a total area of 70 square kilometers and a population of 4.4 thousand.
Liuye Lake Tourism Resort
Liuye Lake Tourism Resort lies in the east of Changde City. It has a total area of 175 square kilometers and a population of 5.3 thousand.
Jinshi County is located at the middle and lower reaches of the Li River. It has an area of 558 square kilometers and a population of 260,000.
Anxiang County is next to the Yunmeng Mountain and the Dongting Lake, with the Yangtze River to its north. It has an area of 1087 square kilometers and a population of 602,299.
Taoyuan County, close to the Dongting Lake and the Yuan River, is located in the Northwest of Hunan Province. It has a total area of 4,458 square kilometers and a population of 980,000.
Shimen County is located in the Northwest of Hunan and boasts the Hupin Mountain which is the highest mountain in Hunan Province. It has a total area of 3,973 square kilometers and a population of 700,000.
Linli County lies in in the middle and lower reaches of the Li River with mountains surrounding it to the east, west and south. It has a total area of 1201 square kilometers and a population of 450,000.
Lixian County is located in the northwest of Hunan Province and on the West bank of the Dongting Lake. It has a total area of 2017 square kilometers and a population of 800,000.
Hanshou County is known as “the Hometown of Chinese Soft-shelled Turtle”, “the Town of the Chinese Black Poplar”, “the Land of Chinese Poetry”and “ the Town of Chinese Pearls”. It has a total area of 2034square kilometers and a population of 760,000.
Changde City enjoys pleasant weather and multiple landforms. The Yuan River and the Li River, admitting different sources of water, run through the districts and counties in Changde. The city is home to some 2,472 types of animals and plants, including 24 types of rare animals. Among nearly 100 kinds of minerals, the reserve amount, quality and yield of realgar rank number one in China. The yield of salt, gold, gypsum, bone coal, quartz sand and bentonite are on the top in Hunan. In addition, reserves of silicon sand, gypsum, marble, granite, barite, diamond, talc, ground phosphate rock, soft coal and bone coal are abundant in Changde.